ALAIR3

DoE calls for a chemical battery with 5x capacity, within 5 years – can it be done?

Autore: ExtremeTech

The Department of Energy wants batteries with five times the energy storage of those we have today. They want them to be five times cheaper and to be ready in five years. Earlier this year the Department’s solicitation for proposals was announced, and now five universities have been chosen for the job along with several national labs and private companies. According to US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, a “Manhattan Project-like atmosphere” is to be fostered. With a funding level of only $ 120 million and no visible enemy at the border, what are the prospects for success?

By most estimates the Manhattan Project — a research program that led to the first atomic bomb — was funded to the tune of $ 2 billion, which today would be around $ 20 billion. The Battery and Energy Storage Hub, as the new project is called, barely scratches the surface of that. Today’s chemical battery technology is fairly mature, and a serious competitor that would be viable on this projected timescale has yet to emerge. Exotic materials like graphene or carbon nanotubes are being explored as anode materials, and seemingly far-out concepts like using viruses to self assemble electrodes have been studied, but these concepts have yet to be proved. To achieve the kind of numbers that the DoE expects, we can only guess at what these folks might may have hiding up their sleeves.

air aluminum batteryOne alternative to Li-ion batteries that has been proposed is an aluminum-ion (Al-ion) battery. Al-ion would have a potential energy density of 1kW-hr/kg compared with 0.4 kW-hr/kg for Li-ion. Aluminum has the advantage of possessing three valence electrons compared to lithium’s single available valence electron. The result is that battery charge/discharge reactions involving aluminum can transfer three times as many electrons and hence triple the current per chemical unit.

Metal-ion batteries still have the drawback that they cannot be discharged to zero. One might have thought that the Tesla roadster would have been designed so that this could never happen, however Murphy’s law recently provided for dramatic headlines as several owners were rumored to have gotten stuck with huge tabs for replacement batteries. Another sore point for metal-ion batteries was highlighted by a recent Chevy Volt crash test report. Three weeks after a rollover test impacted the battery, it caught fire.

Overcoming gasoline

At 13kW-hr/kg, gasoline is still a far more attractive option so long as cities have greater troubles to tend to than the associated noise and smog it brings. To really compete today, metal-air batteries (such as Li-air) producing electricity from reaction with atmospheric oxygen are needed. Like a jet engine, they do not need to internally store oxidizer. Their effective energy density is therefore much higher, comparable in fact to gasoline. The major trade-off is the lack of ability to easily recharge electrically. While cities are thinking more critically about electrifying the transportation sector with charging stations and underground wireless induction coils at traffic lights, the battery sector is already moving on — hence the urgency of the new battery mandate.

Capacitors (not graphene ones)One challenge to recharging a Li-air battery lies in keeping it protected from the environment. The cathode needs oxygen but it is degraded by humidity. The cathode also needs a huge surface area, which makes designing a compact battery more difficult. This also means that while energy density is high, the power density is typically low, equating to hard limits on the rate at which power can be put in or drawn off the battery. For electric vehicles looking to be quick off the mark, a supplementary supercapacitor charging itself in the background from the battery could be used for those times when the motor needs a lot of current.

Al-air batteries are an attractive technology that has already seen use in military vehicles. Aluminum is a familiar metal, more abundant and less strategic than lithium. As primary cells — i.e. non-rechargeable — the aluminium anode is slowly consumed by its reaction with atmospheric oxygen at the cathode. The cathode, immersed in a water-based electrolyte, converts the aluminum into hydrated aluminum oxide at which point the battery will no longer produce electricity. Physically recycling the aluminum anode from hydrated aluminum oxide is possible but not a process that is envisioned to happen on board a vehicle. Designers also need keep in mind that since metal-ion batteries gain oxygen during their operation, they would be expected to acquire mass as they are depleted.

Next page: What can we do with these new super batteries? Well, make jetpacks, for a start

16 thoughts on “DoE calls for a chemical battery with 5x capacity, within 5 years – can it be done?

  1. Ciao a tutti, ho comprato mercoledì 19 un nuovo notebook. Inizialmente mi incominciava a dare moltissimi problemi, poi piano piano sono spariti perchè li ho risolti (ho anche ripristinato il sistema almeno 3 volte). Ma lasciando stare tutto questo, ora ho scaricato il software “Battery Status”, dove dice che la mia batteria, da 47520mWh, è arrivata a 47012mWh, naturalmente quindi, sì è consumata del circa 1%.

    Ma questo programma calcola la durata rimanente della batteria solo da l’ultima formattazione o in generale quindi fin da quando ho comprato il pc?

  2. ragazzi qst è la canzone x la finta carriera politica di PARIS HILTON

    questo è il video :
    http://it.youtube.com/watch?v=zAK_wQ9rhjg

    questo è il testo ke mi dovete tradurre please

    Paris For President
    At the Palms chillin’ with the martini
    Paris For President
    Your commander in bikini
    When they tell you ’bout my policies
    To stop the player hating on the USA
    Incentivize Nuclear Non-Proliferation
    And ratify Kyoto today
    You can ride in the motorcade,
    In my hybrid, pink, Escalade, Hey!
    Paris For President
    Not another oldie cliche
    Paris For President
    You can get married if you’re straight or if you’re gay
    If youre gonna put lipstick on a pig,
    Make sure that shade matches the skin-tone
    You can trust me with my finger on the button
    Nucular (Bush voice) a sad vocabulary don’t!
    Trading in the cabinet for a walk, in, closet Hey!
    Paris For President
    America should put me in charge
    Paris For President
    Look at Bush it cant be that hard
    Simon Cowell he might be a little mean
    But when one of the judges kicks the bucket
    I’ll put him on the Court Supreme
    Then I’ll paint the white house pink
    And look into a trip to Maui
    Paris for President
    A proponent of clean air energy
    Paris for President
    The real Maverick in D.C.
    Water boarding is torture and
    Global warming is totally not hot
    I’ll make a department called the fashion police
    And fix the economy with all of the new jobs
    Makeover Lady Liberty in Donna, Tommy & Calvin Klein, Hey!
    Paris for President
    Get your cute little butt out there and vote
    Paris for President
    Dispensing beauty tips, and hope
    Paris for President (repeats)
    I’m Paris Hilton and I approve this message.

    GRAZIEEE

  3. Ciao ragazzi,ho bisogno del vostro aiuto,qualcuno mi potrebbe fare un riassunto non tanto lungo ma nemmeno corto sull’Australia in inglese?!? è per la tesina d’esame,scrivendo un’pò di storia,geografia economia ecc. GRAZIE IN ANTICIPO!

  4. non so tra quale scegliere, e non ho problemi di soldi uno di questi tre devo scegliere mi date una mano ? 10 punti ! ^-^

    Obbiettivo – Canon 50 F1.8 II EF
    Obbiettivo – Canon 28 F2.8 EF
    Battery Grip – BG-E8

    NOTA: A me servirebbe la sfocatura molto elevata… a stile film americano …. ditemi voi

  5. La consegna, che mi hanno dato, è la seguente:
    ”trovare la temperatura più elevata e la più bassa, realizzata in un laboratorio di fisica e spiega,secondo te,come hanno fatto a trovarla”

    La seconda parte dell’esercizio posso benissimo farla da sola… Non ho problemi, mentre per quanto riguarda la prima.. Non saprei dove cercare (non ditemi ‘google’). QUalcuno ha la più pallida idea? Per favore… NOn ho molto tempo x stare al pc… mi attendono 80 pagine di storia…
    Grazie (:

  6. Mi sembra di capire che il battery grip MB-D80 venga venduto senza batterie. Siccome sono interessato all’acquisto semplicemente per la comodità dell’impugnatura, per il momento non comprerei una seconda batteria, tanto più che la durata è eccezionale, mi chiedevo se le 2 batterie sono collegate in parallelo (quindi può funzionare con una sola) oppure in seriale (quindi deve funzionare con entrambe).

    Per logica sono collegate in parallelo (altrimenti in seriale si raddoppierebbe il voltaggio) e poi non avrebbe molto senso che funzionasse solo con entrambe, però è sempre meglio informarsi bene.

    GRAZIE.

  7. Il 19 ottobre 2011 il dipartimento di elettrotecnica dell’ITIS Enrico Fermi si è recato alla centrale termoelettrica Federico II in Brindis. La centrale Federico II è una delle principali centrali termoelettriche dell’Enel. Essa si trova presso la località di Cerano, nel territorio di Brindisi. Per estensione essa è la seconda più grande centrale termoelettrica d’Italia, infatti, ha un’estensione di circa 270 ettari. Inoltre, è anche una delle centrali termoelettriche più grande e importante d’Europa. Come ogni centrale termoelettrica, la centrale di Cerano trasforma energia termica in energia elettrica. Nel documento “Dirty Thirty” pubblicato nel maggio 2007 dal wwf, l’impianto è stato classificato come la venticinquesima peggiore centrale d’Europa riguardo l’emissione di CO2. Proprio per questo motivo, a partire da giugno 2010 è stato inaugurato un prototipo di impianto per la cattura del CO2. Questa esperienza è stata molto formativa perché interessa direttamente il nostro dipartimento elettrico.

    TRADUZIONE:
    On 19 October 2011, the Department of Electrical ITIS Enrico Fermi went to Frederick II power plant in Brindisi. The Central Frederick II is a major thermal power plants of ENEL. It is located in the town of Cerano, in the territory of Brindisi. By extension, it is the second largest thermal power plant in Italy, in fact, covers about 270 hectares. It is also one of the largest and most important power plants in Europe. As any power plant, the central Cerano converts thermal energy into electricity. In the document “Dirty Thirty” published in May 2007 by the WWF, the plant was ranked as the twenty-fifth worst in Central Europe on CO2 emissions. For this reason, starting from June 2010 was inaugurated a prototype plant for CO2 capture. This experience was very educational because it directly affects our electrical department.

  8. ho una vortikar con comando turbo va velocina ma voglio farla schizzare ovviamente per modo di dire.
    ho un pack batterie di ciccio bello con on off e un filo che esce mi sembra rosso.
    cè un modo per unirlo al battery pack originale.
    grazie in anticipo

  9. Ricorda di dedicare particolare attenzione alla fase della documentazione. Deve essere lunga almeno 3 pagine.

    RAGA MI AIUTANTE PER FAVORE
    VI RICORDO 10 PUNTIIIIIIIIII

  10. Sono una Samsung e una HP, sulla HP risulta “AN03 Notebook battery”, ne deduco quindi che può essere utilizzata anche su Notebooks. Sono un po’ ignorante nel campo, se sapete darmi delle dritte su cosa scrivere nelle info mi fate un favore.
    Ho buttato via due Netbooks, ma le batterie sono ancora buone e volevo rivenderle su eBay. Contando che sono usate, su che prezzi dovrei andare?

  11. è per un esame fra qualche giorno e sono indietro mi affido a voi ….sono stanca potreste tradurre con me…
    THE JUDICIAL POWER IS EXERCISED AT LOCAL LEVEL BY DISTRICT COUTS. COURTS OF APPEAL HEAR APPEALS AGAINST THE DECISION OF DISTRICT COURTS. IN THE UNITED STATES ,STATE COURTS HAVE NO JURISDICTION OVER FEDERAL MATTERS, NOR DO FEDERAL COURTS HAVE JURISDICTION OVER INTERNAL STATE MATTERS EXCEPT WHERE CITIZENS OF DIFFERENT STATES ARE CONCERNED OR BOTH FEDERAL AND STATE MATTERS ARE INVOLVED .
    SIMILARLY , A STATES COURT IN NEW YORK HAS NO JURISDICTION OVER PERSONS LIVING IN CALIFORNIA OR ANY OTHER STATE . A LEGAL DISPUTE INVOLVING PROPERTY IS USUALLY HEARD BY A COURT IN THE COUNTY OR DISTRICT IN WHICH THE PROPERTY IS LOCATED.TO FURTHER COMPLICATE THE MATTER , THE STATES DO NOT HAVE UNIFORM COURT SYSTEMS,AND THE SAME TYPE OF COURT IN DIFFERENT STATES IS DESIGNATED BY DIFFERENT NAMES.
    ULTIMATELY, ALL DECISIONS OF THESE COURT CAN BE APPEALED AGAINST IN THE SUPREME COURT WHICH ACCEPTS,HOWEVER ,ONLY SMALL FRACTION OF THE CASES PROPOSED. IF A CASE IS NOT HEARD BY THE SUPREME COURT , THE LOWER COURT’S DECISION STANDS.
    THE SUPREME COURT MAY ALSO REVIEW THE CONSTITUTIONALITY OF STATE LAWS AND ACTS OF CONGRESS, AND DECLARE ANY PRESIDENTIAL OR CONGRESSIONAL ACTION UNCONSTITUTIONAL.

    THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES IS THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OF THE COUNTRY AND HAS WIDE POWERS:
    _HE IS THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF ARMED FORCES: THOUGH ONLY CONGRESS CAN DECLARE WAR,THE PRESIDENT CAN DECIDE TO ANGAGE TROOPS IN SMALL ARMED ITERVANTIONS;
    _HE IS THE HEAD OF A NETWORK OF DEPARTMENTS WHOSE SECRETARIES. HE PERSONALLY CHOOSES ,THOUGH HIS CHOICE MUST RECEIVE THE SENATE’S APPROVAL;
    _HE CAN INTRODUCE LEGISLATION IN CONGRESS AND CAN VETO ANY BILL ALREADY PASSED BY CONGRESS; IF A TWO- THIRDS MAJORITY ON A NEW VOTE IS NOT REACHED ,THEN THEBILL IS ACTUALLY STOPPED;
    _HE APPOINTS ALL MAJOR WASHINGTON OFFICIALS ,BUT ,AGAIN ,THE SENATE MUST AGREE WITH HIS DECISIONS;
    _HE FORMS A CABINET CONSISTING OF ADVISORS AND THE HEADS OF THE MAIN DEPARTIMENTS E.G. THE DEPARTIMENT OF STATE (WHICH DEALS WITH INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ),THE DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY ,DEFENSE,INTERIOR,ENERGY,EDUCATION ETC.
    AS NEW AREAS OF INTEREST ARISE,THEIR IMPORTANCE IS RECOGNIZED BY GRANTING CABINET STATUS TO THE CHIEF OFFICIAL OF THE DEPARTMENT.
    TO BE ELECTED PRESIDENT,A CANDIDATE MUST BY BORN IN THE UNITED STATES,AND BE AT LEAST 35 YEARS OLD. HE IS ELECTED FOR A FOUR-YEAR TERM AND CAN BE RE-ELECTED ONCE. WHEN HE TAKES OFFICE ,HE APPOINTS A VICE-PRESIDENT WHO SUBSTITUTES HIM FOR THE UNEXPIRED TERM IN CASE OF DEATH ,RESIGNATION OR REMOVAL FROM OFFICE(IMPEACHMENT). THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS TAKE PLACE EVERY FOUR YEARS,EARLY IN NOVEMBER.
    Grazie mille…e cmq non è finita ,è solo un assagio…mi farò risentire…ragazzi prometto punti e miglior risposte a tutti…grazieeeeee

  12. Ho fatto la morfologica a 20+2, mi hanno dato i risultati, però dalle sigle capisco poco.
    Sono andata in cerca del significa ma uno non lo trovo proprio, Help…
    il DOE cos’è??

  13. IL TESTO IN ITALIANO L’HO FATTO IO LA TRADUZIONE IN INGLESE ( CHE DOVRESTE GENTILMENTE CONTROLLARE) GOOGLE TRANSLATE. Ho ancora da fare un altro testo e poi da studiare una montagna di cose…vi giuro che non ve lo chiedo perchè non me ne tiene

    The historic Lowfield furnace was built back in 1850. It has withstood two world wars and is linked to the city that has grown over the years. It was an important meeting place since the great park which is located outside it, now sadly abandoned. With the help of regional incentives for historic buildings, the structure could be restored with a minimum outlay and could become a hotel with a restaurant where you can taste the typical products of the city. The oven with its magnificent park, which is crossed by a spring, attract tourists and thus become a source of revenue for the Department of Transport. The department could simply move the location of the road into the countryside heathland, without losing money: indeed might profit because the profits of the new structure and saving the cost of demolition. In addition, to qualify for the state and environmental incentives to respect the environment, the department could use in the construction of low-pollution materials, could properly insulate the building and use the energy of the windmill and solar panels to be strongly self. The new buildings also occupy many workers both during the restructuring during the opening of the complex. This is not a call inconcreta and expensive, it is both environmentally friendly source of economic gain, cultural, historic and beneficial for citizens who otherwise all breathe the exhaust fumes of vehicles that would pass too close to the town. So in this way the department, combining business with pleasure, it would be attentive to the citizens and the environment in which they live, as a government entity should always do.

    La storico forno di Lowfield fu costruito nel lontano 1850. Esso è resistito a due guerre mondiali ed è legato alla città che ha visto crescere negli anni. Esso era un importante luogo di incontro visto il grande parco che si trova al suo esterno, che ora purtroppo è abbandonato. Con l’aiuto degli incentivi regionali per gli edifici storici la struttura potrebbe essere ristrutturata con una spesa minima e potrebbe diventare una struttura alberghiera con un ristorante dove si potrebbero gustare i prodotti tipici della città. Il forno con il suo magnifico parco, che è attraversato da una sorgiva, attrarrebbe i turisti e quindi diventerebbe fonte di guadagno per il dipartimento dei trasporti. Il dipartimento potrebbe semplicemente spostare il percorso della strada verso la campagna incoltivata, senza per questo perdere soldi: anzi potrebbe guadagnare visti i profitti della nuova struttura e il risparmio dei costi di demolizione. Inoltre, per beneficiare degli incentivi ambientali dello stato e per rispettare l’ambiente, il dipartimento potrebbe utilizzare nella costruzione materiali poco inquinanti, potrebbe isolare correttamente l’edificio e utilizzare l’energia del mulino a vento e dei pannelli solari in modo da essere energicamente autosufficiente. I nuovi edifici poi occuperebbero molti lavoratori sia durante la ristrutturazione che durante l’apertura del complesso. Questa non è una richiesta inconcreta e dispendiosa, essa è insieme ecologica, fonte di guadagno economico, culturale, storico e salutare per i cittadini che altrimenti respirerebbero tutti i fumi di scarico dei veicoli che passerebbero troppo vicini al centro abitato. Dunque in questo modo il dipartimento, unendo l’utile al dilettevole, sarebbe attento ai cittadini e all’ambiente in cui vivono, come un ente statale dovrebbe sempre fare.

  14. Devo trovare il nome del negozio in cui posso “have a new watch battery fitted”. Inizia con la lettera t. Sapreste dirmi qual è la parola? Ho fatto diverse ricerche, ma non ho trovato nulla. Grazie mille.

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