Scientists Use CRISPR to Block HIV Replication Inside Living Cells

Author: Ryan Whitwam ExtremeTechExtremeTech

This site may earn affiliate commissions from the links on this page. Terms of use.

Modern medicine has made incredible progress in the treatment of HIV. Years ago, infection with HIV would almost certainly lead to developing AIDS, but treatment can now keep the disease at bay. Even with daily antiretroviral therapy (ART), the pathogen continues to hide in a patient’s cells. Researchers from Japan’s Kobe University say they’ve successfully used the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing platform to block the replication of HIV in living cells.

Around 35 million people around the world are infected with HIV, but many of them keep their viral levels low with ART. Medications cannot currently root out all signs of HIV infection because of the way the virus reproduces. HIV is a retrovirus, meaning it’s an RNA-based virus when it infects cells. However, the first thing it does upon entering a cell is use an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to transform into DNA and hide in the cell’s genome. When the cell produces its own proteins, it also ends up making new viral particles.

Even if you eliminate all the circulating HIV in the body, there’s still the virus hiding inside cells. That’s why the Japanese team looked at CRISPR/Cas9. This technology is based on a bacterial antiviral system, but scientists have learned how to use it to precisely snip DNA in living cells. The team used CRISPR to alter HIV’s genome while it was still hiding inside cells, thus limiting its virulence.

The experiment targeted two of HIV’s nine genes that are key to the proliferation of the virus. The genes in question are known as tat and rev. Without those genes, HIV doesn’t work. Researchers used genetic information from six common HIV subtypes to build guide RNA (gRNA) that pointed the Cas9 protein at the right DNA segments. They introduced it into cells using a modified lentiviral vector.

CRISPR was not used to add new genes or make any specific substitutions. The point was simply to damage these critical HIV genes. With the mutated and non-functional genes, the virus was crippled. According to the team, their method of targeting multiple HIV gene variants was successful in limiting viral proliferation. Almost no functional virus particles were produced by the cells.

This experiment happened in a cell culture, but future study could result in a method for doing the same in humans. If you can reduce circulating viruses to zero and nuke viral genomes inside cells, you may finally be able to cure HIV.

Radeon Software Adrenaline Edition 18.5.1

Author: Le news di Hardware Upgrade

scheda aggiornata 36 minuti fa

Radeon Software Adrenaline Edition 18.5.1

Descrizione

Radeon Software Adrenaline Edition 18.5.1 per schede video dalla famiglia Radeon HD 7000 sino alle serie Radeon R9 300, Radeon R9 Fury e Radeon RX, in versione ufficiale con certificazione WHQL. Di seguito le principali note fornite con i driver:

Support For

    • Windows®10 April 2018 Update
    • AMD Ryzen™ Desktop Processors with Radeon™ Vega Graphics
    • Ancestors Legacy™
      • Up to 6% faster performance using Radeon Software Adrenalin Edition 18.5.1 on the Radeon™ RX Vega 56 (8GB) graphics card than with Radeon Software Adrenalin Edition 18.4.1 at 1920×1080 (1080p).1
      • Up to 13% faster performance using Radeon Software Adrenalin Edition 18.5.1 on the Radeon™ RX 580 (8GB) graphics card than with Radeon Software Adrenalin Edition 18.4.1 at 1920×1080 (1080p).2
    • Microsoft® PlayReady®3.0
      • Supported on Radeon RX 400 Series and Radeon RX 500 Series desktop graphics products.

Fixed Issues

    • HBCC options may not properly reset to default when Radeon Settings “Restore Factory Defaults” option is selected.
    • Destiny™2 may experience increasing load time durations when the game is run for extended periods of time.
    • Tearing may be observed in some borderless fullscreen games on Radeon FreeSync enabled displays when Radeon Software performance metrics is enabled.
    • Netflix™ playback through a web browser may experience corruption or hangs when using multi GPU enabled system configurations with Radeon RX 400 series or Radeon RX 500 series graphics products.
    • Radeon ReLive streaming or uploading of videos to Facebook™ may intermittently fail.

Known Issues

    • Some games may experience minor stuttering during gameplay when the Radeon ReLive Instant Replay feature is enabled and FRTC is also enabled.
    • Radeon Overlay may not show all available features when some games are run in borderless fullscreen mode.
    • The Witcher™ 3: Wild Hunt may experience stuttering during gameplay.
    • A system hang may occur on a small number of system configurations after Radeon Software installation if Radeon Settings is launched without a system reboot. A workaround is to reboot your system after install.

TSMC starts work on Apple’s A12

Author: edfu777 [AT] hotmail [DOT] com (Nick Farrell) Fudzilla.com – Home

7nm

The dark satanic rumour mill has started a hell on earth yarn claiming that TSMC has started work on Apple’s custom built Apple A12 CPU built on a 7-nm process.

The phone is expected to be on board the iPhone 9 and will be hyped to hell [is that a marketing or technical term?. ed]

Bloomberg said that TSMC has begun manufacturing the so-called Apple A12 on a mass scale, and claims the chip will be “a shock” to Apple’s rival Samsung. Apple is also trying to get ahead of 7-nanometer designs from Qualcomm, the biggest maker of mobile phone chips.

However,  Bloomberg is short on details and had to pad out its report explaining what Nm was and why it was it was groundbreaking, super and cool. If Apple is depending on the process technology alone to save its dying cash cow, it might have its work cut out for it. 

The current range of iPhones – the iPhone X, iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus – ship with Apple’s 10nm A11 Bionic CPU.

Microtech e-cube, un nuovo mini-PC per la quotidianità

Author: Vittorio Pipia Tom’s Hardware

Microtech, realtà italiana attiva nel settore informatico, ha presentato e-cube, un mini-PC che offre buone prestazioni in uno spazio contenuto. Si tratta infatti di un piccolo parallelepipedo con un lato di appena 140 millimetri, che racchiude al suo interno la potenza necessaria per l’uso quotidiano – per intenderci, non è un PC da gaming né per la produttività spinta.

A muovere il sistema operativo, Microsoft Windows 10 / Ubuntu 18.04 e Android Nougat 7.1 in dual-boot è infatti un processore quad-core Intel Pentium J4205 con frequenza di 2,6 GHz, con grafica integrata Intel HD 505, coadiuvato da 4 GB di RAM e 32 GB di archiviazione eMMC, espandibile tramite SSD o HDD da 2.5 pollici.

In fase di configurazione sarà possibile scegliere tra due SSD di tipo MLC 3D con capacità di 120 o 240 GB che offrono prestazioni in linea con i migliori SSD SATA.

Leggi anche: Guida all’acquisto del NoteBook

Completa la dotazione di porte, che prevede uno slot microSD, due USB 3.0 e altrettante USB 2.0, l’ingresso per l’alimentazione, una HDMI, una Gigabit LAN e un jack da 3,5 mm per audio e microfono. La connettività wireless è affidata a una scheda di rete con Bluetooth 4.0 e Wi-Fi dual band 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac.

Presente anche un attacco VESA nella parte inferiore che permette di agganciarlo comodamente a monitor e TV, in modo da ridurne ulteriormente gli ingombri.

Si può già acquistare sul sito ww.e-tab.it a un prezzo di 319 euro che include anche vari software relativi alla sicurezza come DefenX Security Suite e al backup, che si può fare anche su Cloud grazie ai 500 GB compresi nel pacchetto software Memopal Cloud Backup.

Qualcomm Announces Snapdragon 710 Platform

Author: Andrei Frumusanu AnandTech

Today Qualcomm announces a new entry to the Snapdragon lineup with the first 700-series SoC platform. The Snapdragon 710 is a direct successor to the Snapdragon 660 but comes with a new branding more worthy of the increased performance characteristics of the SoC. The higher-end 600 series SoCs such as the Snapdragon 650 and 660 were among the first non-flagship SoCs that used big CPU cores, which brought a significant jump in terms of performance to the mid-range. While we haven’t seen that many design wins with the Snapdragon 650/660’s, they are increasingly becoming popular among Chinese vendors for example. The Snapdragon 710 fixes this branding issue of having quite capable SoCs with large CPU cores grouped together with lower tiered SoCs in the lower numbered SKUs in the 600 series such as the Snapdragon 625 or 635.

Qualcomm Snapdragon Upper Mid-Range SoCs
SoCSnapdragon 710Snapdragon 660
CPU4x Kryo 360 (CA75)
@ 2.2GHz 
4x Kryo 360 (CA55)
@ 1.7GHz
4x Kryo 260 (CA72)
@ 2.2GHz
4x Kryo 260 (CA53)
@ 1.8GHz
GPUAdreno 616Adreno 512
DSPHexagon 685 Hexagon 680 
ISP/
Camera
Spectra 250 ISP
32MP single / 20MP dual
Spectra 160 ISP
24MP
Memory2x 32-bit @ 1866MHz
LPDDR4
29.9GB/s

1MB? system cache

2x 32-bit @ 1866MHz
LPDDR4
29.9GB/s
Integrated ModemSnapdragon X15 LTE
(Category 15/7)
DL = 800Mbps
4x20MHz CA, 256-QAM
UL = 300Mbps
2x20MHz CA, 256-QAM
Snapdragon X12 LTE
(Category 12/13)
DL = 600Mbps
3x20MHz CA, 256-QAM
UL = 150Mbps
2x20MHz CA, 64-QAM
Encode/
Decode
2160p30, 1080p120
H.264 & H.265

10-bit HDR pipelines

2160p30, 1080p120
H.264 & H.265
Mfc. Process10LPP14nm LPP

The big IP blocks found on the Snapdragon 710 are very much derivatives of what’s found on the flagship Snapdragon 845. On the CPU side we see the same 2.2GHz maximum clock on the big cores, but the Kryo 360 Cortex A75 based CPUs are microarchitectural upgrade over last year’s A72 based Kryo 260. The little cores are also based on the newer Cortex A55’s and are clocked at up to 1.7GHz. The performance improvements are quoted as an overall 20% uplift in SPECint2000 and 25% faster performance in Octane and Kraken versus the SD660.

The SoC now also uses the new system cache first introduced in the Snapdragon 845 – although I’m expecting a smaller, yet unconfirmed 1MB size in the SD710.

GPU-wise, this is also Qualcomm’s first mid-range SoC sporting the new 600 series Adreno. As usual we don’t have too much information about the Adreno 616 other than an expected frequency of around 750MHz. The performance benefits on the GPU are quoted at up to 35% higher performance versus the Adreno 512 in the SD660.

In terms of connectivity the new SoC implements an X15 modem which is capable of UE Category 15 in the downstream with up to 800Mbps in 4x carrier aggregation and up to UE Category 7 in the upload with up to 2x CA and 256 QAM. The new chipset now also offers 2×2 802.11ac digital backend for WiFi – however it’ll still need an external discrete analog RF frontend.

Where the Snapdragon 710 is claimed to shine though is power efficiency. The chipset is manufactured on the leading edge 10nm LPP node from Samsung – same as the Snapdragon 845. The fact that Qualcomm is targeting a leading edge node might be a sign of the where 700-series is headed and what it’s aiming for.

It’s not only on the CPU and on the manufacturing node where the 710 borrows features from the 845- the Hexagon DSP is of the same generation and the Spectra 250 ISP also inherits most of the new features found in the flagship SoC which should greatly improve image processing for mid-range devices. The camera and display pipelines are fully 10-bit capable so it can handle HDR capture and display.

Overall the Snapdragon 710 really does seem like a toned down 845 variant which actually balances out some important aspects. It’s especially good to see the mid-range being pushed into the 10nm manufacturing node as that will give a generation power efficiency jump for the relevant devices.

The Snapdragon 710 platform is available today and Qualcomm expects consumer devices to be launched in this second quarter – meaning we’ll likely to see some vendor announcements around Computex.

Related Reading